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PHYSICAL REVIEW A 84, 023834 (2011)

Role of quantum fluctuations in the optomechanical properties of a Bose-Einstein

condensate in a ring cavity

S. K. Steinke and P. Meystre

B2 Institute, Department of Physics and College of Optical Sciences, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721, USA

(Received 30 March 2011; published 19 August 2011)

We analyze a detailed model of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) trapped in a ring optical resonator

and contrast its classical and quantum properties to those of a Fabry-P´erot geometry. The inclusion of two

counterpropagating light fields and three matter field modes leads to important differences between the two

situations. Specifically, we identify an experimentally realizable region where the system’s behavior differs

strongly from that of a BEC in a Fabry-P´erot cavity, and also where quantum corrections become significant.

The classical dynamics are rich, and near bifurcation points in the mean-field classical system, the quantum

fluctuations have a major impact on the system’s dynamics.

DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.84.023834

PACS number(s): 37.30.+i, 37.10.Vz, 42.65.Pc, 42.50.Pq

I. INTRODUCTION

In recent years there has been an explosion of interest

in optomechanical systems in which at least one degree of

freedom is cooled nearly to its quantum ground state [1–4].

In the top-down approach, the mechanical element (often one

end mirror of a Fabry-P´erot cavity that is allowed to oscillate)

is initially in thermal equilibrium with its surroundings and

then is cooled via radiation pressure. On the other hand,

in the bottom-up approach, the mechanical portion of the

system typically consists of ultracold atoms trapped inside

a high-Q optical resonator. The ultracold atomic system can

be a thermal sample [5], a quantum-degenerate Bose-Einstein

condensate (BEC) [6,7], or even a quantum-degenerate gas

of fermions [8]. In the bottom-up situation the mechanical

oscillator(s) are comprised of collective momentum modes

of the trapped gas, excited via photon recoil [9–13]. The

dynamics of the collective interaction between photons and

ultracold atoms have been studied in detail both theoretically

and experimentally in the context of superradiance in BECs

[14–22] as well as collective atomic recoil lasing (CARL)

[23–30]. In both these situations the interplay between light

fields and atomic motion leads to feedback effects. The

bottom-up approach to optomechanics exploits this interplay

as well, with the added feature that the motion of the atoms is

analogous to that of a mechanical element driven by radiation

pressure.

In the case of a high-Q Fabry-P´erot cavity the intracavity

standing-wave field couples the macroscopically occupied

zero-momentum component of the BEC to a symmetric

superposition of the states with center-of-mass momentum

±2¯hk via virtual electric dipole transitions [6,7]. As discussed

in a previous paper [31], there are situations where a ring cavity

can lead to atomic dynamics different from the standing-wave

situation. This is because in contrast to a standing wave,

running waves permit one in principle to extract “which way”

information about the matter-wave diffraction process. As a

first step toward discussing that question, the earlier work

considered the difference between classical standing wave

and counterpropagating light fields, that is, the difference in

optomechanical properties of condensates trapped in, say, a

Fabry-P´erot and a ring cavity. One main consequence of the

presence of two counterpropagating running waves was that

1050-2947/2011/84(2)/023834(10)

in addition to a symmetric “cosine” momentum side mode,

it becomes possible to excite an out-of-phase “sine” mode as

well. In the optomechanics analogy, this indicates that two

coupled “condensate mirrors” of equal oscillation frequencies

but in general different masses are driven by the intracavity

field. We showed that this can result in complex multistable

behaviors, including the appearance of isolated branches of

solutions for appropriate choice of parameters.

The present paper builds on these results and includes

two new features. At a classical (operators replaced by c

numbers) level, the evolution of the zero-momentum mode

of the condensate is now also included. Furthermore, this

work also discusses the role of small quantum fluctuations

in the system, particularly on the occupancy of the sine and

cosine side modes. As previously discussed, together with the

original condensate they form an effective V system, with

the upper levels–the sine and cosine modes—driven by a

two-photon process involving both counterpropagating light

fields. At the classical level one or the other of these modes can

become a dark state, but quantum fluctuations will normally

prevent these modes from becoming perfectly dark [32]. It

follows that measuring correlation functions of the optical

field provides a direct means to probe the quantum properties

of the matter-wave side modes. These and other aspects of the

role of quantum fluctuations are examined in the following

sections, which consider the situation where these fluctuations

are feeble and their effect can be treated in the framework of a

linearized theory.

This paper is organized as follows: Sec. II introduces our

model of a quantum-degenerate atomic system interacting with

two quantized counterpropagating field modes in a high-Q

ring resonator, and casts it in a form that emphasizes the

optomechanical nature of the problem. Section III derives

the resulting Heisenberg-Langevin equations of motion for

the system. It solves them first in steady state for the case

of classical fields, recovering in a slightly different form some

key results of Ref. [31]. Section IV turns to the study of the role

of quantum fluctuations on the system dynamics. It starts by

deriving the linearized equations of motion that govern these

fluctuations, and then briefly outlines a general treatment of

quantum correlations applicable in cases where many separate

noise sources are present. The remainder of the section exploits

023834-1

©2011 American Physical Society

S. K. STEINKE AND P. MEYSTRE

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 84, 023834 (2011)

these results to analyze the different behaviors produced by the

interplay between classical mean-field dynamics and quantum

fluctuations for selected system parameters. Finally, Sec. V is

a summary and conclusion.

II. MODEL

To couch the problem in a more transparently optomechanical form, we further make the substitutions 1

cˆ0 =

√

N+

Xˆ 0 + i Pˆ0

,

√

2

(5)

Xˆ 1,2 + i Pˆ1,2

,

√

2

(6)

Xˆ c,s + i Pˆc,s

cˆc,s =

.

√

2

The first of these equations is indicative of the fact that we

assume that the zero-momentum component of the atomic

sample comprises a macroscopically populated component

√

that we treat in mean-field theory via a classical amplitude N ,

to which are superimposed quantum fluctuations resulting

from the coupling to the sine and cosine side modes.

The approximate expansion (4) and the definitions (5) and

(6) result in the alternate form of the Hamiltonian

aˆ 1,2 =

We consider a Bose-Einstein condensate of N two-state

atoms with transition frequency ωa and mass m, assumed

to be at zero temperature, confined along the path of two

counterpropagating optical beams in a ring cavity of natural

frequency ωc and wave number kc = ωc /c. These fields are

driven by external lasers of intensity ηi and frequency ωp . We

assume that the atomic transition is far off resonance from

the field frequency, so that the upper electronic level can be

eliminated adiabatically. Neglecting two-body collisions and

in a frame rotating at the pump frequency ωc the Hamiltonian

for this system is then

Hˆ = Hˆ opt + Hˆ pump + Hˆ BEC + Hˆ int ,

Hˆ = Hˆ opt

+ Hˆ pump + Hˆ BEC

+ Hˆ int

,

(1)

(7)

where

where

Hˆ opt = −¯h

Hˆ BEC

Hˆ int

˜

2

Xˆ i + Pˆi2 ,

2

i

√

=h

¯ 2

Re(η)Pˆi − Im(η)Xˆ i ,

Hˆ opt

= −¯h

2

†

aˆ i aˆ i , Hˆ pump = i¯h

i=1

2

2

2

†

ηi aˆ i − ηi∗ aˆ i ,

Hˆ pump

i

i=1

Hˆ BEC

h

¯ d

ˆ

= dx ψ (x) −

ψ(x),

2m dx 2

†

†

†

=h

¯ 0 dx ψˆ † (x)(aˆ 1 aˆ 1 + aˆ 2 aˆ 2 + aˆ 2 aˆ 1 e2ikx

ˆ†

†

ˆ

+ aˆ 1 aˆ 2 e−2ikx )ψ(x).

Hˆ int

(2)

(3)

is the off-resonant vacuum Rabi frequency, and g0 is the usual

(resonant) vacuum Rabi frequency.

The photon recoil associated with the virtual transitions

between the lower and upper atomic electronic states results

in the population of atomic center-of-mass states of momenta

2p¯hk, where p is an integer. For feeble intracavity fields and

large detunings it is sufficient to consider the first two momentum side modes p = ±1. It is then convenient to decompose

the atomic Schr¨odinger field in terms of its momentum ground

state and two nearest momentum side modes in terms of the

parity (rather than momentum) eigenstates

ˆ

ψ(x)

=

2 cˆ0

√ + cˆc cos(2kx) + cˆs sin(2kx) ,

L

2

(8)

and

Lˆ e = Xˆ 1 Xˆ 2 + Pˆ1 Pˆ2 ,

Lˆ o = Xˆ 1 Pˆ2 − Xˆ 2 Pˆ1 ,

√

Mˆ I = 2N Xˆ I + Xˆ 0 Xˆ I + Pˆ0 PˆI ,

Here = ωp − ωc is the pump-cavity detuning,

0 = g02 (ωp − ωa )

ωr

ˆ 2

Xc + Xˆ s2 + Pˆc2 + Pˆs2 ,

=h

¯

2

0 ˆ ˆ

=h

¯ √ (Le Mc + Lˆ o Mˆ s ),

2

(9)

where I = {c,s}. In Eq. (7) a constant term has been ignored

and the energy shift of the atom-light interaction has been

absorbed into the optical part of the Hamiltonian (hence the

primed terms).

The operators Lˆ and Mˆ are quadratic light and matter

operators, respectively, while the e and o subscripts in the

light operators indicate their parity under interchange of the

left- and right-moving light fields. Finally,

˜ = − 0 N

(10)

is an effective detuning that accounts for the mean-field Stark

shift of the condensate and

ωr = 2¯hk 2 /m

(11)

is the recoil frequency associated with the virtual transition.

(4)

where cˆ0 , cˆc , and cˆs are bosonic annihilation operators for the

zero-momentum component and for the sine and cosine side

modes of the quantum-degenerate atomic system, respectively.

1

Recasting the light field operators in terms of “position” and

“momentum” operators has been done primarily for later analytical

ease rather than as a straightforward analogy to other optomechanical

problems.

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ROLE OF QUANTUM FLUCTUATIONS IN THE . . .

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 84, 023834 (2011)

As already discussed in Ref. [31] the presence of two

counterpropagating fields in a ring resonator results in a

situation that is significantly more complex than is the case for

a high-Q Fabry-P´erot cavity. In particular, the optomechanical

properties of the condensate are now formally analogous to

those of a system of two coupled moving mirrors. This can be

seen by exploiting the fact that due to the large value of N , we

can for now neglect the nonlinear terms in Mˆ c and Mˆ s , so that

√

Mˆ i 2N Xˆ i

(12)

and hence

√

Hˆ int

0 N(Lˆ e Xˆ c + Lˆ o Xˆ s ).

(13)

Thus, rather than having a light-matter interaction proportional

to the light field intensity times the position of an effective

mirror we now have an interaction with two “mirrors” [33]

of equal mass and effective oscillation frequency, but each of

which is driven differently due to interference effects between

the two counterpropagating light fields.

III. MEAN-FIELD STEADY STATE AND STABILITY

The Heisenberg-Langevin equations of motion of the

system are easily derived from the Hamiltonian (7), complemented by appropriate quantum noise and damping terms. One

finds readily

√

˙ˆ = −κ Xˆ −

˜ Pˆi + Re(η) 2

X

i

i

0

+ √ [Mˆ c Pˆj + (−1)i Mˆ s Xˆ j ] + ξˆxi ,

2

√

˙

˜ Xˆ i + Im(η) 2

Pˆ i = −κ Pˆi +

˙ˆ

X

0

P˙ˆ 0

˙ˆ

X

c

P˙ˆ c

˙ˆ

X

s

P˙ˆ s

0

− √ [Mˆ c Xˆ j + (−1)i Mˆ s Pˆj ] + ξˆpi ,

2

0

= −γ Xˆ 0 + √ (Lˆ e Pˆc + Lˆ o Pˆs ) + ξˆx0 ,

2

0

= −γ Pˆ0 − √ (Lˆ e Xˆ c + Lˆ o Xˆ s ) + ξˆp0 ,

(14)

2

0

= −γ Xˆ c + ωr Pˆc + √ Lˆ e Pˆ0 + ξˆxc ,

2

√

0

= −γ Pˆc − ωr Xˆ c − √ Lˆ e ( 2N + Xˆ 0 ) + ξˆpc ,

2

0

= −γ Xˆ s + ωr Pˆs + √ Lˆ o Pˆ0 + ξˆxs ,

2

√

0

= −γ Pˆs − ωr Xˆ s − √ Lˆ o ( 2N + Xˆ 0 ) + ξˆps ,

2

where i = {1,2} and j = 3 − i.

The noise sources are assumed uncorrelated for the different

modes of both the matter and light fields. Because the damping

originates in the aˆ and cˆ operators, it appears in both the Xˆ and

Pˆ equations of motion. In the case of the light fields, the noise

and damping originate from cavity loss, vacuum noise, and

laser fluctuations, while for the matter fields the primary source

of noise and damping is three-body collisions with additional

nearby

atoms. In addition, the customary factors

√ noncondensed

√

of 2κ and 2γ multiplying the ξˆ (see, e.g., [34]) have been

FIG. 1. Mean intracavity photon number of both modes as a

˜ Here κ = 2π × 1.3 MHz,

function of the effective detuning .

γ = 2π × 1.3 kHz, 0 = 2π × 3.1 kHz, ωr = 2π × 15.2 kHz,

N = 9000, and η1 = η2 = 0.54κ. Stable solutions are solid and

unstable are dashed.

absorbed into their definitions. This simplifies later results

somewhat.

A. Comparison to previous results

Before undertaking an analysis of the role of quantum

fluctuations, we investigate the effects of including the zeromomentum mode itself as a dynamical component in the

classical steady state of the system. Surprisingly, perhaps,

we find that its inclusion can result in the appearance of new

dynamical features, such as, for example, a Hopf bifurcation.

To proceed we neglect all noise operators, treat the remaining

fields classically in a standard mean-field approach, and simply

look at the existence and stability of the fixed points of the

classical version of Eqs. (14) as the various parameters are

varied. The results of one such calculation are shown in Fig. 1,

revealing the dependence of the intracavity photon number

˜ (We use the word

|αi |2 = 12 (Xi2 + Pi2 ) on the detuning .

“photon” rather loosely in the classical description of this

section; more accurately it is a dimensionless measure of the

mean light field intensity.)

When compared to Fig. 2 of Ref. [31], which uses identical

parameters, we note that a quite similar bistable behavior is

observed, with two degenerate stable branches the photon

number can reach, as before. Which branch is reached is dependent on initial conditions and quantum fluctuations, and, when

one field’s intensity is given by the lower branch, the other’s

is given by the upper. There is one particularly interesting

discrepancy when the evolution of the zero-momentum mode’s

occupancy is included, however. For a small range of negative

˜

detunings—around /κ

≈ −0.5 for the present example—the

bistable branches become unstable, due to a previously unseen

Hopf bifurcation [35]. We attribute this bifurcation to the

inclusion of the dynamics of the zero-momentum mode, an

aspect that was neglected in the analysis of Ref. [31]. Bistable

periodic cycles are present, and as before, which is reached

depends primarily on the initial state of the system. The

amplitudes of oscillations observed in these stable cycles are

quite small for the zero-momentum mode when compared to

023834-3

S. K. STEINKE AND P. MEYSTRE

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 84, 023834 (2011)

stable mean-field solution. A primary point of interest for

the remainder of this work is to identify conditions such that

quantum corrections lead to a finite occupancy of this mode, in

particular in or near parameter regions where other solutions

appear. Thus, we begin with the ansatz

X¯ s = P¯s = 0.

(16)

This allows the equations of motion for the matter field

operators to be simplified, yielding constraints for the light

field mean values:

X¯ 1 X¯ 2 + P¯1 P¯2 = 2|αD |2 .

(17)

X¯ 1 P¯2 − X¯ 2 P¯1 = 0,

FIG. 2. Mean sine mode “position” and “momentum” as a

˜ Other parameters as above. The outer magnitude

function of .

branches are the position solutions and the inner the momentum.

The maximum sine mode occupancy Ns reached is roughly 20.

√

its mean value (which is of the order N ), but for the lightly

occupied side modes, the amplitudes can be comparable to the

mean values.

This is a case where simply making the ansatz

√

cˆ0 → N suppresses certain dynamical features.

In order to do a meaningful linearized quantum treatment,

we attempt in this paper to avoid parameter regions where

complicated multistable behavior is evident. The results of

the next section will assist us in this effort. Furthermore, a

broader search of the parameter space has hinted that there are

also experimentally realizable regimes in which the classical

dynamics goes beyond multistability and becomes chaotic. We

hope to return to this topic in later work.

B. Classical dark state

We now turn to a concrete example in which quantum

and classical predictions will be shown to differ qualitatively.

Specifically, we consider the case of symmetric pumping

η1 = η2 = η of the counterpropagating cavity modes. We have

shown previously in Ref. [31] and confirm in the following that

within a classical (for the light field) and mean-field (for the

atoms) theory the sine mode is a dark state, for all but relatively

narrow parameter regions in which bistability and spontaneous

symmetry breaking occurs (Fig. 2). This can be seen easily by

replacing all optical and matter-wave operators by classical

expectation values, for instance

Xˆ 0 → X¯ 0 ,

(15)

where the overbar indicates the mean. Similar definitions are

used for the rest of the linear operators. When a quadratic

operator is written with an overbar, we refer to the products

of the classical means of its constituents [L¯ e = X¯ 1 X¯ 2 + P¯1 P¯2 ,

N¯ c = (X¯ c2 + P¯c2 )/2, etc.].

The steady-state solution in this limit is easily obtained

by setting all time derivatives equal to zero. Because the

equations of motion are coupled cubic polynomials, there

may be multiple real-valued solutions. Also, because there

are 10 variables, we cannot necessarily expect to find analytic

solutions. Nevertheless, we find that the dark sine mode

solution always exists and has a closed form. For much, though

not all, of parameter space, it turns out to be the unique,

where |αD |2 is the mean number of intracavity photons in

either of the light modes, assuming the dark sine mode ansatz

holds. In other words, it is the projected number of photons in

the cavity modes assuming that the sine mode is empty. For

completeness and to make more direct contact with Ref. [31],

we also solve for the other classical steady-state values.

X¯ 0 = − 2 (γ 2 + 2 )Z,

P¯0 = γ 2 2 Z,

X¯ c = −γ 2 ωr Z,

P¯c = −γ (γ 2 + 2 )Z,

where

√

= 0 |αD |2 2

(18)

(19)

is the off-resonant Rabi frequency for the intracavity photon

number |αD |2 and

√

2N

Z= 2

.

(20)

(γ + 2 )2 + γ 2 ωr2

We note that if we calculate M¯ c and M¯ s , the quantities

governing light-cosine mode

√ and light-sine mode interaction

strengths, we retrieve X¯ c 2N and 0, which are exactly

the results obtained when occupancy changes in the zeromomentum mode are neglected. This shows that allowing

for the evolution of√the zero-momentum mode as in Eq. (5)

versus fixing cˆ0 → N will only yield different behaviors for

the light and side-mode fields in the spontaneously broken

symmetry region of parameter space.

The remaining four equations are easily solved to give

√

√

√

˜ − 0 X¯c N )Im(η) 2

κRe(η) 2 − (

¯

X1,2 =

,

√

˜ − 0 X¯c N )2

κ 2 + (

(21)

√

√

√

˜ − 0 X¯c N )Re(η) 2

κIm(η) 2 + (

¯

.

P1,2 =

√

˜ − 0 X¯c N )2

κ 2 + (

We may therefore eliminate P1,2 without loss of generality

(thereby requiring αD = a¯ 1,2 to be real) by appropriate

selection of the real and imaginary parts (equivalently, the

phase and strength) of the pumping η, namely

Re(η) = καD ,

(22)

√

˜ − 0 X¯c N )αD .

Im(η) = −(

Recall from Eqs. (18)–(20) that X¯ c has a nontrivial implicit

2

dependence on αD (proportional to αD

for small αD and

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PHYSICAL REVIEW A 84, 023834 (2011)

FIG. 3. Imaginary part of the pump intensity η required to

produce mean intracavity field αD . All parameters are as in Fig. 1,

˜ = −1.0 × κ. Note that because Re(η) is linear in

except η itself and

αD [Re(η) = καD ], η itself is determined uniquely as a function of αD .

−6

proportional to αD

for large αD ). Once we begin the discussion

of the quantum fluctuations, we will treat αD as the free

parameter rather than η, because it allows the quantum

equations of motion to be put forth in closed form. That such a

substitution is possible without requiring an inordinately large

pump intensity η is shown in Fig. 3, a plot of the relationship

between the desired intracavity field αD and the imaginary part

of the required η. This replacement can therefore allow αD to

be interpreted as the predicted intracavity field strength for a

given pumping strength under the assumption that there are no

atoms excited to the sine side mode.

Under the restrictions (22), a bifurcation diagram of the

steady-state solutions of the mean intracavity field strengths

|αi | as a function of αD are shown in Fig. 4. In general,

the system has up to six steady-state solutions, with up to

two being stable. For small αD , we have α1 = α2 = αD ,

but as αD is increased the system undergoes a bifurcation,

with α1 = α2 . This occurs at αD ≈ 0.4 for our parameters.

This is followed by a small window with no stable solution

(between about αD = 0.45 and 0.6), at which point, there

is again a stable symmetric solution where the αi are larger

than might be expected. Presumably, the symmetry breaking

creates something of a positive feedback loop: a few atoms

are excited into the sine mode, which shifts the phase of the

counterpropagating light fields, causing them to interfere with

each other less effectively, thereby increasing the net number

of photons in the cavity, causing more atoms to be excited.

Lastly, for much larger light fields, the pumping dominates

the atoms’ symmetry breaking ability and the dark sine mode

becomes stable again.

In addition, the character of the bifurcation diagrams as

˜ will change because of (22), that is, because

functions of

we use a complex (rather than purely real as in Fig. 1) η

˜ These

whose imaginary part is itself a linear function of .

diagrams are shown in Figs. 5–7. The multistable behaviors in

particular are richer than before. The dark sine mode remains

˜ (straight solid line |αi |2 =

stable over the entire range of

2

0.0625 = 0.25 at the bottom of Fig. 5), yet it is augmented

by an isola consisting of additional steady-state solutions

with macroscopic side mode occupancies. In particular, N¯ s

can reach approximately 250, almost 3% of the total number

FIG. 4. Mean intracavity field |αi | as a function of αD . All

parameters are as in Fig. 3. Stable solutions are solid and unstable

are dashed. The dark sine mode ansatz indeed produces a solution

over the entire range. However, it is only unique and stable for very

feeble light fields. As the intensity is increased, the solution bifurcates

and becomes unstable, returning to stability for sufficiently high

intracavity field strength (though it is accompanied by additional

unstable solutions).

of atoms (see Fig. 6). The stability and symmetry of these

solutions varies greatly depending on the detuning. We will see

later that quantum fluctuations may affect tunneling between

these stable solution branches. We remark that for the range of

detunings where the isola has a single stable solution (between

˜ ≈ −2.2κ and

˜ ≈ −2.7κ) the light mode has an additional

symmetric stable solution, but the side mode still remains dark.

It becomes macroscopically occupied once the symmetry of

the optical isola is broken. Lastly, we examine the effect of

allowing depletion of the zero-momentum condensate mode;

¯ 0 and P¯0 . From

that is, we look at the√steady-state

√ values X√

Eq. (5), we have c¯0 = N + X¯ 0 / 2 + i P¯0 / 2. We find that

X¯ 0 (not plotted here)

√is negative in sign and quite a bit smaller

in magnitude than N ; considering only this fact we might

wonder if the evolution of the zero-momentum mode is really

worth examination. However, when the system’s symmetry is

broken and the sine mode acquires a finite occupancy, P¯0 can

˜

FIG. 5. Mean intracavity photon number |αi |2 as a function of .

All parameters are as in Fig. 1, except rather than a fixed η, we take

αD = 0.25. Stable solutions are solid and unstable are dashed.

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S. K. STEINKE AND P. MEYSTRE

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 84, 023834 (2011)

adequately be described by linearized equations of motion.

Specifically we introduce the fluctuations in the familiar

fashion via small quantum corrections to the mean-field

solutions,

Xˆ 0 → X¯ 0 + xˆ0 ,

FIG. 6. Mean sine mode position and momentum as a function

˜ All parameters as in Fig. 5. The outer branches are position

of .

solutions and the inner are momentum.

and so forth, and linearize the Heisenberg-Langevin equations

of motion in these fluctuations. This process is justified as

long as the quantum fluctuations are small compared to the

classical means (or in the case of the sine mode, with its zero

mean, as long as the quadratic terms are smaller than the linear

ones). But we remark again that because of the instabilities

demonstrated here and in Ref. [31] this will not always be the

case, so some care must be taken when selecting values for the

parameters.

This linearization procedure yields the 10 coupled operator

equations of motion

˜ pˆ i + B pˆ j

x˙ˆ i = −κ xˆi −

actually be fairly significant compared to the relevant scale,

√

2N ≈ 134 (it should be noted that X¯ 0 , though small in

magnitude, still reduces the real part of c¯0 enough such that

|c¯0 |2 N ; the condensate cannot “grow” from this treatment).

√

This result strongly suggests that the replacement of cˆ0 by N

is not always the optimal ansatz to make; here it seems that

cˆ0 should be a dynamical, rather than static, quantity. To put

this another way, we expect the classical steady-state solutions

of the equations of motion to be comprised of coherent states

of the light and matter fields, including the zero-momentum

mode. When the sine mode attains a finite occupancy, its

presence can cause a major shift in the quantum state of

the zero-momentum mode beyond just the removal of a few

atoms.

IV. QUANTUM EFFECTS

A. Linearized quantum equations of motion

We now turn to a discussion of the impact of small

quantum fluctuations on the dynamics of the system. To

proceed, and armed with our detailed results on the meanfield behavior in hand, we include quantum fluctuations

in the original equations of motion, assuming that these

fluctuations remain sufficiently small that their effects may

˜ All parameters are as in Fig. 5.

FIG. 7. Mean P¯0 as a function of .

(23)

+ (−1)i (χ0 xˆs + ℘0 pˆ s ) + ξˆxi ,

˜ xˆi − B xˆj − χc xˆ0

p˙ˆ i = −κ pˆ i +

− χ0 xˆc − ℘c pˆ 0 − ℘0 pˆ c + ξˆpi ,

x˙ˆ 0 = −γ xˆ0 + pˆ c + ℘c (xˆ1 + xˆ2 ) + ξˆx0 ,

p˙ˆ 0 = −γ pˆ 0 − xˆc − χc (xˆ1 + xˆ2 ) + ξˆp0 ,

(24)

x˙ˆ c = −γ xˆc + ωr pˆ c + pˆ 0 + ℘0 (xˆ1 + xˆ2 ) + ξˆxc ,

p˙ˆ c = −γ pˆ c − ωr xˆc − xˆ0 − χ0 (xˆ1 + xˆ2 ) + ξˆpc ,

x˙ˆ s = −γ xˆs + ωr pˆ s + ℘0 (pˆ 2 − pˆ 1 ) + ξˆxs ,

p˙ˆ s = −γ pˆ s − ωr xˆs − χ0 (pˆ 2 − pˆ 1 ) + ξˆps ,

where i = {1,2}, j = 3 − i, and

0 √

B = √ [( 2N + X¯ 0 )X¯ c + P¯0 P¯c ],

2

√

χ0 = 0 αD ( 2N + X¯ 0 ), χc = 0 αD X¯ c ,

(25)

℘0 = 0 αD P¯0 , ℘c = 0 αD P¯c .

The first two of Eqs. (24) describe the fluctuations of the

light field, and the last six the matter-wave fluctuations in the

zero-momentum component and in the sine and cosine side

modes. The terms proportional to B describe Bragg scattering

between the two counterpropagating optical fields due to the

material grating formed by the zero-momentum matter wave

and the cosine mode. The coupling between the light and

matter operators is determined by the constants χ0 , χc , ℘0 , and

℘c , which act as small perturbations that couple the evolution

of the four light and six matter operators. Note that there

is no coupling dependent on the occupancy of the sine side

mode at the level of these equations of motion. The coupling

coefficients involve only the classical, mean optical, and matter

wave fields. Thus, the coupling to the sine side mode only

occurs indirectly via quantum fluctuations in the symmetric

driving situation considered here.

While the exact eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the 10 × 10

matrix defined by these equations cannot be found explicitly

in closed form, standard perturbation theory states that the

eigenvalues associated to the uncoupled optical and matter

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PHYSICAL REVIEW A 84, 023834 (2011)

blocks of equations, for example, for χ0,c = ℘0,c = 0, match

those of the coupled system up to second order in the

perturbation. Numerical testing confirms that the values indeed

remain close. These eigenvalues are

˜ + B ), λLs = −κ ± i(

˜ − B ),

λLc = −κ ± i(

ωr

ωr ± 4 2 + ωr2 ,

(26)

λMc = −γ ± i 2 +

2

λMs = −γ ± iωr .

The reason for this nomenclature is clear when one considers

the corresponding eigenvectors (normal modes of evolution).

While their explicit expressions are not possible to write

in closed form and are exceedingly unwieldy even when

only expanded to first order in the perturbation, a qualitative

inspection yields some useful information. The two pairs

of eigenvalues λLc and λLs correspond to light-dominated

evolution with a small mixture of cosine and zero-momentum

state matter modes, in the first case, and of the sine matter

mode, in the second case. As one might anticipate, the

oscillation frequencies of these optical modes have shifts

of opposite sign depending on whether they are coupled

to the symmetric or antisymmetric matter grating. The four

λMc eigenvalues correspond to normal modes dominated

by the cosine mode and zero-momentum mode (in unequal

proportion) and coupled to the light fields. The λMs values

correspond to sine-dominated normal modes coupled to the

light fields. The sine-dominated normal modes only contain a

tiny contribution from the cosine mode and zero-momentum

modes and vice versa, a direct consequence of the dark-state

nature of the sine mode at the classical, mean-field level. This

explains why the sine normal mode’s oscillation frequency

is just ωr : to lowest order, it is decoupled from the other

normal modes of the system. Since γ is typically the smallest

dimensional parameter, as one increases the coupling between

the light and matter fields, for example by increasing αD , the

real part of λMc can become positive even though the change

in |λMc | is relatively small. This leads to the instability in

the dark sine mode solution seen in Fig. 4. Because κ γ

the optical transients die out rapidly and the light fields

follow adiabatically the matter wave fields, with noise- and

interaction-dominated fluctuations.

Langevin equations,

d ˆ

ˆ

+ ξ

ˆ (t),

O(t) = WO(t)

dt

(27)

where W is a d × d matrix with c-number coefficients and ξ

ˆ

are noise operators with 0 mean (i.e., any net input to the system

has already been absorbed into the equations of motion).

For

√

convenience we have merged the usual factors of 2κ needed

to preserve commutation relations into ξ

ˆ , since they may vary

for each operator.

These equations can be integrated in a straightforward

fashion, yielding

t

ˆ

= eWt O(0)

ˆ

+

O(t)

eW(t−u) ξ

ˆ (u) du.

(28)

0

For each i,j d, and at all times s,t > 0 we have

Oˆ i (0)ξˆj (t) = 0,

ξˆi (s)ξˆj (t) = Nij δ(s − t),

(29)

(30)

where the first condition is satisfied axiomatically, and the

second one holds for white noise sources, an approximation

that should be adequate for the system under study. The

expectation values of the operators alone are just

ˆ

ˆ

O(t)

= eWt O(0) ,

(31)

since ξ

ˆ (t) = 0.

Under these conditions we can obtain the correlation matrix

ˆ

⊗ O(0) e

ˆ

ˆ

⊗ O(t)

ˆ

WT t

O(s)

= eWs O(0)

min(s,t)

T

+

eW(s−u) NeW (t−u) du, (32)

0

which lets us compute all quadratic correlations at all times,

for example, xˆ1 (s)pˆ c (t) .

For the rest of the paper we shall work in the long-time

limit, in which the transient behavior of the operators has

decayed to 0. In physical terms, for the model in question,

this corresponds to times t 1/γ , which are experimentally

accessible for long-lived BECs. In this limit, the initial values

have decayed to irrelevance, and the correlations are simply

min(s,t)

T

ˆ

⊗ O(t)

ˆ

eW(s−u) NeW (t−u) du. (33)

O(s)

=

0

B. A formal parenthesis

To proceed further we open a small parenthesis to introduce

a somewhat formal result that will prove useful in the analysis

of higher-order correlation functions of the quantized atomic

and optical fields, in particular the correlations of various

orders of the matter-wave and light modes, as well as the cross

correlations between the matter and light fields. This formal

development extends much of the machinery familiar from

systems with a single damped operator to deal with multiple

noise sources with distinct characteristics.

Consider a quantum system described, in the Heisenberg

picture, by a set of d operators Oˆ k that comprise a dˆ

Let O

ˆ

evolve according to

dimensional vector operator O.

a linear (or linearized) system of d coupled Heisenberg-

This is the central result of this section. For a Gaussian process

we can easily determine higher order correlations as well:

all three-operator correlators are 0, and the four operator

correlators are given by

ˆ

⊗ O(t)

ˆ

⊗ O(u)

ˆ

ˆ

O(s)

⊗ O(v)

ˆ

⊗ O(t)

ˆ

ˆ

ˆ

= O(s)

⊗ O(u)

⊗ O(v)

ˆ

⊗ O(u)

ˆ

ˆ

⊗ O(v)

ˆ

+ O(s)

⊗ O(t)

ˆ

⊗ O(v)

ˆ

ˆ

⊗ O(u) .

ˆ

+ O(s)

⊗ O(t)

(34)

Now, we apply this technique to our model. The operators

ˆ

are the xˆ and p,

ˆ with the coefficients W given by (24).

O

Lastly, we determine the ξx,p , and hence, N from the following

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S. K. STEINKE AND P. MEYSTRE

relations:

PHYSICAL REVIEW A 84, 023834 (2011)

†

ξˆai (s)ξˆai (t) = 2κδ(s − t) Nith + 1 ,

†

ξˆai (s)ξˆai (t) = 2κδ(s − t)Nith ,

†

ξˆcI (s)ξˆcI (t) = 2γ δ(s − t) NIth + 1 ,

†

ξˆcI (s)ξˆcI (t)

= 2γ δ(s − t)NIth ,

(35)

(36)

(37)

(38)

where i = {1,2}, I = {0,c,s}, the N are thermal noise

occupancies of the baths near the characteristic frequencies of

the system as given by Bose-Einstein statistics, and all other

quadratic noise correlations are 0. The noise matrix N for the

position and momentum operators thus has the form of five

2 × 2 block matrices, each with 2N th + 1 for the on-diagonal

entries and ±i for the off-diagonal entries with all four entries

multiplied by γ or κ as appropriate. Because we are dealing

with optical photons and a BEC at a temperature of at most

a few micro-Kelvin, going forward we take all N th → 0, or,

equivalently, we take the bath temperatures to be 0. We find that

typically increasing the N th just adds directly to the occupancy

of the corresponding fields.

th

C. Second-order correlations and quantum occupancies

With these formal results at hand, and working with a set

of parameters that are a combination of those in Figs. 4–7 and

˜ = −1.0 × κ, αD = 0.25, we are now in a position to

with

explore a few results for the cross operator correlations, before

looking at the quantum-fluctuation-augmented occupancy of

the side modes. Further calculations not presented here have

shown that the results obtained for these particular parameter

values are fairly typical of the monostable regime in which we

are interested.

As expected, the fluctuations in the zero-momentum and

cosine modes are virtually uncorrelated with those of the sine

ˆ p)

ˆ 0,c (x,

ˆ p)

ˆ s ≈ 0 but are slightly correlated with

mode (x,

each other (e.g., xˆ0 xˆc ≈ 0.022, for comparison X¯ 0 X¯ c ≈ 0.11

so the classical mean-field correlation is a more significant

contribution). By far the largest correlation between distinct

matter and/or light fields, however, is the one that confirms

our intuition, namely, the sine mode’s fluctuations are very

strongly correlated to those of the light field [e.g., xˆi xˆs ≈

(−1)i 0.32,i = 1,2]. This shows that, indeed, the occupation

of the sine side mode is driven by and interdependent with the

fluctuations in the light fields.

We also consider the occupancy of the side modes as

˜ and αD .

functions of the most easily tunable parameters

Keeping in mind that all single operator expectation values

such as xˆi decay to 0, we have

2

Xˆ i = X¯ i2 + xˆi2 ,

(39)

etc. When evaluating these quantities we must be careful to

avoid those regions in parameter space where the dark sine

mode steady-state solution is unstable, in particular, we need

αD < 0.4. The results are shown in Figs. 8 and 9. In the

former we see a noticeable occupation of the sine mode before

the classical bifurcation. This may be sufficient to shift the

bifurcation point to a lower value of αD . This possibility

is corroborated by the observed shift to the left in the plot

of Nc versus N¯ c ; that is, when quantum fluctuations are

FIG. 8. Side mode occupancies Nc , Ns as functions of αD .

Parameters as in Fig. 3. The cosine mode (solid) has a larger

occupancy than that of the sine mode (dashed). For reference, the

classical mean N¯ c is plotted as well (dotted line).

included, the cosine mode behaves as if αD were slightly

larger. On the other hand, a somewhat different behavior is

˜ decreases from 0 and approaches

seen in the latter plot. As

the bifurcation seen above in Figs. 5–7, the sine mode initially

starts to increase in occupancy, but then its (and the cosine

˜ increases

mode’s) quantum fluctuations are suppressed as | |

further. Nevertheless, as we see below, the variance in the sine

mode’s occupation is so large that the quantum fluctuations

may still influence the character of the system’s behavior in

˜ −1.0κ.

the case −2.5κ

D. Variance in side mode occupancy

Because the system is coupled to a zero temperature bath,

we compare the variance

(40)

σI2 = Nˆ I2 − Nˆ I 2

to that of a bosonic system in thermal equilibrium, in which

case

2

σI,TH

= Nˆ I 2 + Nˆ I ,

(41)

˜

FIG. 9. Side mode occupancies Nc , Ns as functions of .

˜

Parameters as in Fig. 5, but the range of has been extended slightly.

The cosine mode (solid) again has a larger occupancy than the sine

mode (dashed). For reference, the classical mean N¯ c is plotted as well

˜ so it is constant.

(dotted); X¯ c and P¯c do not depend on

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PHYSICAL REVIEW A 84, 023834 (2011)

FIG. 10. Variance of side mode occupancy compared to thermal

variance as functions of αD . Parameters as Fig. 8. Cosine mode is

solid and sine mode is dashed.

specifically taking the ratio of (40) to (41). A value less

than one indicates subthermal statistics, as would be the case

when there is a significant classical mean and/or quantum

fluctuations are suppressed. On the other hand, a ratio greater

than one indicates significant fluctuations and a matter or

light field driven out of thermal equilibrium. These ratios are

computed and plotted in Figs. 10 and 11 as functions of αD

˜ respectively. In the former, for weak mean intracavity

and ,

light field αD , both modes’ statistics are thermal in nature.

As the applied field is increased, the sine mode is perturbed

to slightly higher variance, whereas the cosine mode at first

exhibits less than thermal variance, as the classical mean-field

contribution grows. However, the quantum fluctuations then

take over and its variance grows quickly as αD approaches

the bifurcation at a value of roughly 0.4. We should however

take this result with a grain of salt since it is at this point that

the quantum fluctuation contribution to Nˆ c exceeds the mean

contribution N¯ c , thus endangering the validity of the linearized

treatment. Still, it should of course be expected that increased

fluctuations in the cosine mode significantly alter the existence

and stability of steady-state solutions in this critical region.

In the second of these figures we plot the variances as a

˜ In this case, except for

function of the effective detuning .

detunings very near 0, the cosine mode is almost completely

classical, as is the sine mode for sufficiently negative values

˜ This implies that, if a zero-momentum condensate is

of .

formed and allowed to evolve for the parameters given and

˜ of less than −2.5κ or so, and if it reaches the dark

a

sine mode steady state, it is quite likely to remain there

indefinitely, as quantum fluctuations are strongly suppressed.

˜ the sine mode fluctuations

But for less negative values of ,

are significant. It may be possible that these fluctuations

“anticipate” the classical bifurcation nearby in parameter

space, or even that they allow the new stable solutions to

appear for larger values of the detuning than they would

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V. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS

By analyzing a detailed model including two counterpropagating light fields and three matter fields, we are able to find

a region in parameter space, with experimentally accessible

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This work is supported by the US National Science

Foundation, the DARPA ORCHID program through a grant

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